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莫笑愚de午夜驪歌

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一个孤独的旅人,一个人生的探险者,一个人间过客。从东半球到西半球,从城市到城市,从落日到落日,流浪、行走、品味生活。在命运之河驾一叶扁舟,用虔诚的朝圣者灵魂,赞美荆棘、爱和死亡。

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【原创译文】特朗斯特罗默:太多气体了(三)  

2014-08-04 16:48:54|  分类: 莫笑译诗 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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【原创译文】特朗斯特罗姆:太多气体了! - 莫笑愚 - 莫笑愚de午夜骊歌



作者:汤姆·思雷
翻译:莫笑愚

正如诗歌“被遗忘的船长”一样,诗人在“维梅尔”一诗中直面深处的崛起,恰似它在历史决定的状态下宣告自己的到来。后一首诗关乎到17世纪的一个啤酒屋,在前一首诗中则借用了二战时期一艘护卫舰在北大西洋逡巡的故事。关于历史与我们个人命运的连续性的感知,特朗斯特罗默建立了(二者之间)波德莱尔所称的“对应关系”,其中“灵魂的激荡,梦幻的波涛,意识的冲击”使得我们被带入的特定的社会状态振颤并(与我们)共振。特朗斯特罗默的诗歌在声学上是完美的共鸣区,在那里,所有这些相互矛盾的振动很容易被听见。在“上海的街道”一诗中,人群的沉醉引发对黑暗音符的共鸣:“我们在阳光下显得十分快活,而血正从隐秘的伤口流淌不止。”

这种包容的、视觉上吊诡的习惯在我看来是特朗斯特罗默最杰出的贡献(同时也许对我们现阶段的文风是最有害的)。你可以从他的短篇散文回忆录《致生者和死者》的标题上看出这种难能可贵的品质,“记忆看着我”。波德莱尔的诗行“人类漫步在符号的丛林/符号用明了的眼神回望人类”表明,在通过艺术手段形成我们的记忆的符号的森林与实际生活事件之间,有一种互惠的关系。而实际的生活事件便是我们的人生。特朗斯特罗默对记忆拥有眼睛、它们从自己的制高点观察我们而不论我们是否企图记住的感知,在承认记忆的或然性的同时,坚持了过去是客观的品质。所有这些并非通过意识流不间断的筛选过程来把玩语言;也不必然地说明语言是客观地回忆感情并通过诗歌的形式记载下来的敌人。

特朗斯特罗默对符号的森林如何深刻地与我们富有幻想的生命建立个人的对应关系的透彻理解,对后结构主义语言理论的某些场域进行了无声反驳。就个人经历的情感而言,关于所承继的诗歌结构,没有什么是任意的或政治上强制的。在来势汹汹的悖论面前,这些诗歌结构挑战着我们自身的恐惧与困惑之间更大的协同性。为此,特朗斯特罗默在“上海的街道”或“岛上生活:1860”的结尾写道:“此刻的锈渍为永恒涌出,/ 此刻的伤口为永恒流血”。诗人对两种时间的认可以及它们与锈渍和伤口之间的关系揭示了个人的命运是如何与“永恒”产生撞击的。诗人用日期作符号显示了他对人造的尊重,把令我们舒缓的符号的森林历史性地置于虚无中,同时也与它不安的影响产生共鸣。

特朗斯特罗默的作品所构造的空间,使我们能够深入到这一虚无,而不用否认这首诗的历史时刻之或然性。通过对抗虚无的悄然途径,虚无的“深海冰凉”上升到我们的存在之躯,他令他的诗歌对深渊无比热情,同时承认在我们下方存在着太多的空虚带来的眩晕感觉。在“维梅尔”一诗的结尾处,他将虚无和个人的主观性之间的动态关系作了进一步演绎:

这透风的天空已取代它靠在墙上。
仿佛一个祷告者面对空无。
而空无转过脸朝向我们
窃窃私语:
“我并非空无,我只是开放。”

客观地讲,这同时的否定与肯定,超越了用无情的冷酷面向虚无的王国,而虚无暗示着在我们与它之间的呼应、一种几乎向那开放之所栖居的邀请。也许我们最需要向特朗斯特罗默的诗歌学习的,是他严谨的创作作风,他的谨慎的对由语言的茂盛和堆砌相伴的虚无的拒绝,与此同时,允许在我们和那开放的一瞬之间产生的柔情发生共鸣并延伸开去。(~ 完 ~)

附英文原文:

Too Much of the Air: Tomas Transtromer
by Tom Sleigh


In "Vermeer" as in "The Forgotten Captain" the poet confronts the rising of the deep as it announces its own arrival in historically defined circumstances, a l7th century alehouse in the former case, a World War II convoy patrolling the North Atlantic in the latter. Transtromer's sense of the continuity between history and our private fates sets up what Baudelaire called "correspondance" in which "the lyrical stirrings of the soul, the wave motions of dreaming, the shocks of consciousness" vibrate with and against the specific social conditions we are born into. Transtromer's poems are acoustically perfect chambers in which all of these contradictory vibrations can be heard without straining. In "Streets in Shanghai" the intoxication of the crowd resonates against darker notes: "We look almost happy out in the sun, while we bleed to death from wounds we know nothing about."

This inclusive, paradoxical habit of vision contributes to what I find most appealing in Transtromer's work (and perhaps most damaging to our current period style). You can see this rare quality hinted at in the title of his short prose memoir included in For the Living and the Dead, "Memories Look at Me." Baudelaire's lines "L'homme y passe à travers des f?rets de symboles/Qui l'observent avec des regards familiers" ("Human beings wander through forests of symbols/Which look back at them with a knowing stare") suggests the reciprocity between the forests of symbols that we make of memory through the means of art, and the actual lived events which will have been our lives. Transtromer's sense that memories have eyes that look at us from their own vantage point independent of our attempts at remembering insists on the objective quality of the past while acknowledging the contingent nature of memory. All is not at the mercy of language sieved through the ceaseless processes of mental flux; nor is language necessarily an enemy of recollected emotions objectively recorded through poetic form.

Transtromer's comprehensive understanding of how the forests of symbols establishes deeply personal correspondences to our imaginative lives argues quietly against certain premises of post-structuralist language theory. In terms of personally experienced emotion, there is nothing arbitrary or politically coercive about inherited poetic structures that challenge us to greater coherence in the face of our own fear and confusion before the menacing paradoxes Transtromer proposes at the end of "Streets in Shanghai" or in "Island Life, l860": "This moment's stain that flows out for eternity,/ this moment's wound that bleeds in for eternity." The poet's recognition of two kinds of time and their interrelationship through the stain and the wound demonstrate how individual fates impinge on categories like "eternity". The poet's notation of the date signals his respect for the manmade, historically situated forests of symbols that buffer us from the void, but also resonate with its unsettling influences.

Transtromer's work constructs spaces that allow us to penetrate to that void, but without denying the contingent nature of the poem's historical moment. By this quiet way of confronting the void in which "the deepsea cold" rises into our being, he makes his poems hospitable to the abyss while still acknowledging the vertiginous feel of too much emptiness underneath us. At the ending of "Vermeer" he takes this dynamic between the void and private subjectivity a step further:


The airy sky has taken its place leaning against the wall.
It is like a prayer to what is empty. 
And what is empty turns its face to us
and whispers: 
'I am not empty, I am open.'

Objectively voiced, this simultaneous denial and affirmation points beyond itself with unsentimental cool to a realm where the void itself hints at the correspondences between us and it, an invitation almost to inhabit that openness. Perhaps what we most need to learn from Transtromer's poetry is the grave tact of his making, his wary refusal to march into that void accompanied by linguistic flourishes and salvoes, while allowing the tenderness of this moment between us and that instant of openness to resonate and expand.


From Interview with a Ghost by Tom Sleigh (Graywolf Press, 2006). Copyright 2005 by Tom Sleigh. 

Source: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/19009.  Please contact me via spicychili@163.com should this article be removed from my blog.




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